Origin & History of Bariatric Surgery
The word Bariatric is derived from the greek word ‘Baro’ which means ‘heavy weight’. Modern usage of the word Bariatric is associated with field of medicine that deals with weight loss, weight control and obesity treatment.
History of Bariatric Surgery dates back to the 1950s , during this period weight loss surgeries started gaining acceptance with the introduction of the Intestinal bypass. In Dr.Edward E. Mason developed the less complicated weight loss surgery known as Gastric Bypass [GB], GB had lesser complications compared to the conventional weight loss surgeries.
Dr.Mason is considered to be the ‘Father of Obesity Surgery’ for his pioneering work in treating obese patients.
Bariatric procedures can be classified into
Predominantly Malabsorptive procedures
These surgeries focus on reducing the stomach size, effectiveness of these procedures is derived from creating physiological condition of malabsorption. Prominent surgeries under this category are
- Biliopancreatic diversion
- Jejunoileal bypass
- Endoluminal sleeve
Predominantly restrictive procedures
These procedures aim at reducing the oral intake by controlling the gastric volume produce early satiety, and leave the alimentary canal in continuity, minimizing the risks of metabolic complications.
- Vertical banded gastroplasty
- Adjustable gastric band
- Sleeve gastrectomy
- Intragastric balloon